Properties of Scalar Multiplication of a Matrix |Scalar Multiplication

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We
will discuss about the properties of scalar multiplication of a matrix.

If X and Y are
two m × n matrices (matrices of the same order) and k, c and 1 are the numbers
(scalars). Then the following results are obvious.

I. k(A + B) =
kA + kB

II. (k + c)A = kA + cA

III. k(cA) = (kc)A

IV. 1A = A

Proof: Let A =
[a
ij] and B = [bij] are two m × n matrices.


I. k(A + B) = k([aij] + [bij])

                 = k[aij + bij], (by using the definition of addition of matrices)

                 = [k(aij + bij)], (by using the definition of scalar multiplication of matrices)

                 = [kaij + kbij]

                 = [kaij] + [kbij]

                 = k[aij] + k[bij]

                 = kA + kB

Therefore, k(A + B) = kA + kB (proved).

II. (k + c)A =
(k + c) [aij]

                  = [(k + c) (aij)], (by using the definition of scalar
multiplication of matrices)

                  = [kaij + caij]

                  = [kaij] + [caij]

                  = k[aij] + c[aij]

                  = kA + cA

Therefore, (k
+ c)A = kA + cA (proved).

III. k(cA) =
k(c[aij])

              = k[caij], (by using the
definition of scalar multiplication of matrices)


              = [k(caij)]

              = [(kc) aij], (by using the
definition of scalar multiplication of matrices)

              = (kc) [aij]

              = (kc)A

Therefore, k(cA)
= (kc)A (proved).

IV. 1A = 1[aij]

          = [1 ∙ aij]

          = [aij]

          = A

Therefore, 1A
= A (proved).

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10th Grade Math

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