Hybrid nanoparticle-based nicotine nanovaccines: Boosting the immunological efficacy by conjugation of potent carrier proteins

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Fig. 1

Synthesis and characterization of NanoNicVac. (A) Schematic illustration of NanoNicVac carrying different carrier proteins. (B) CLSM images showing the co-localization of TT carrier protein, lipid shell, and PLGA core, which were labeled by AF-350, NBD, and Nile Red, respectively. Scale bars represent 10 μm. (C) TEM images showing the morphological characteristics of NanoNicVac nanoparticles. (D) Dynamic size distribution of NanoNicVac nanoparticles.



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